Secao Tematica Nacoes ag ag e Memorias em Transe: Mocambique, Africa do Sul ag ag ag ag e Brasil
Making Destination, Making Home: Lesbian Queer World-Making in Cape Town
Construindo espacos de pertencimento: lesbicas queer na Cidade do Cabo
Making Spot, Making Home: Lesbian Queer World-Making in Cape Town
Revista Estudos Feministas, vol. 27, no. 3, 2019
Centro de Filosofia ag e Ciencias Humanas e Centro de Comunicacao e Expressao da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Gotten: 30 August 2019
Accepted: 06 2019 september
Abstract: Two principal, contrasting, narratives characterise public discourse on queer sexualities in Cape Town. From the one hand, the town is touted since the homosexual money of South Africa. This, nevertheless, is troubled by a binary framing of white areas of security and black colored areas of danger (Melanie JUDGE, 2018), which simultaneously brings the ‘the black lesbian’ into view through the lens of discrimination, physical physical physical violence and death. This informative article explores lesbian, queer and homosexual women’s narratives of the everyday everyday lives in Cape Town. Their counter narratives reveal the way they ‘make’ Cape Town house with regards to racialized and heteronormativies that are classed. These grey the racialised binary of territorial security and risk, and produce modes of lesbian constructions of house, particularly the modes of embedded lesbianism, homonormativity and borderlands. These reveal lesbian life that is queer that are ephemeral, contingent and fractured, making known hybrid, contrasting and contending narratives for the town.
Key Phrases: Lesbian, Cape Town, Queer World-Making, Counter-Narratives, Belonging.
Palavras-chave: lesbica, Cidade do Cabo, construcao do mundo queer, contra-narrativas, pertencimento.
Cape Town has frequently been represented since the homosexual money of Southern Africa, your home to lesbian, homosexual, bisexual, transgender and intersexed (LGBTI) communities of this nation and also the African continent (Glenn ELDER, 2004; Bradley RINK, 2013; Andrew TUCKER, 2009; Gustav VISSER, 2003; 2010). Since the town has historically been viewed as intimately liberal (Dhinnaraj CHETTY, 1994; Mark GEVISSER; Edwin CAMERON, 2004; William LEAP, 2005), this idea is strengthened and earnestly promoted because the advent associated with dispensation that is democratic 1994 (LEAP, 2005; TUCKER, 2009). The advertising of Cape Town in this light develops in the sexual and gender based liberties enshrined within the Bill of Rights of the’ that is‘new South 1996 constitution (Laura MOUTINHO et al., 2010). Touted while the ‘rainbow nation’, the latest South Africa’s marketing was predicated on a “rainbow nationalism” (Brenna MUNRO, 2012) by which, Munro contends, LGBTI liberties became an indicator associated with democratic values of this brand new nation – a sign of Southern Africa’s democratic modernity.
But, simultaneously, another principal discourse in regards to Cape Town (mirrored various other towns and towns and cities in Southern Africa) foregrounds the racialised spatiality of weaknesses to lesbophobic stigma, discrimination and physical physical violence. This foregrounds the way the capability to safely enact one’s desire that is lesbian skilled unevenly across Cape Town. Commonly held imaginaries depict the greater amount of affluent, historically white designated areas to be more tolerant and accepting of intimate and gender variety. The less resourced, historically designated coloured and black townships and informal settlements on the Cape Flats have become synonymous in the public imaginary with hate crimes, violence and heterosexist discrimination (Floretta BOONZAIER; Maia ZWAY, 2015; Nadia SANGER; Lesley CLOWES, 2006; Zetoile IMMA, 2017; Nadia SANGER, 2013; Andrew MARTIN et al., 2009; Zethu MATEBENI, 2014) on the other hand. These hate crimes, physical violence and discrimination have emerged to end up being the product consequence of this philosophy that homosexuality is unAfrican, abnormal and against faith (Busangokwakhe DLAMINI, 2006; Henriette GUNKEL, 2010; Zethu MATEBENI, 2017; SANGER; CLOWES, 2006). This creates exactly exactly just exactly what Judge (2015, 2018) relates to as white areas of security and black areas of risk, that has the consequence, she contends, of‘blackening’ homophobia.
These principal discourses impact and inform just just just how lesbians reside their everyday lives. But, there clearly was a disparity that is stark the favorite representation of Cape Town once the homosexual capital/‘home’ to LGBTI communities while the complexities unveiled within the representations and experiences of lesbians’ daily everyday everyday everyday lives in Cape Town. Likewise, a focus that is sole zones ofblack danger/white safety as well as on the attendant foregrounding of (black) lesbian breach and oppression negates and invisibilises black colored lesbians’ agency, their experiences of love and desire, and also the presence of solidarity and acceptance in their communities (BOONZAIER; ZWAY, 2015; Susan HOLLAND-MUTER, 2013; 2018; Julie MOREAU, 2013). This lens additionally occludes the methods for which racialised patriarchal normativities are controlled and navigated in historically ‘white’ areas and places.
Into the face of those contrasting dominant narratives and representations of Cape Town, this short article ask: how can lesbians make place/make house on their own in Cape Town? Drawing back at my doctoral research (HOLLAND-MUTER, 2018), it will probably explore lesbian counter narratives for this binary racialised framing of lesbian security and danger. These countertop narratives is going to do the task of greying the binaried black areas of danger/white areas of safety and can detach ‘blackness’ from a prepared relationship to murderer/rapist and murdered/raped, and ‘whiteness’ from tolerant/solidarity and safety/life. Alternatively, the lens will move to a research of exactly just just exactly how lesbians talk about their each and every day navigations of (racialised and classed) norms and laws surrounding the physical human body, and just how they build their feeling of belonging and lesbian spot in Cape Town. Their countertop narratives will reveal their various techniques of creating house, of queer world-making. This article will explore the way they assume their lesbian subjectivity in connection with their feeling of spot within as well as in reference to their communities. By doing this, it will likewise examine their constructions of Cape Town as house by way of amount of modes, specifically the modes of embedded lesbianism, homonormativity and borderlands. They are, unsurprisingly, raced and classed procedures. The discussion will highlight how lesbians (re)claim their spot inside their communities, and build a feeling of ephemeral and contingent belonging. 1
My doctoral research (HOLLAND-MUTER, 2018) interrogated different modes and definitions of queer world-making (Lauren BERLANT; Michael WARNER, 1998) of lesbians in Cape Town. It did this by examining the various ways for which self-identified queer, lesbian or homosexual ladies 2 from a variety of raced and course positionalities, navigated the normativities contained in everyday/night spaces in Cape Town. Individuals had been expected to draw a representation of the ‘worlds’, the areas and places that they inhabited or navigated inside their lives that are everyday Cape Town. An interactive conversation between participant and researcher then ensued, supplying the chance for clarifications, level and exploration of key themes and problems.
These semi that are in-depth interviews had been carried out with 23 self-identified lesbian, gay females and queer individuals, which range from 23 to 63 years. They certainly were racially diverse, mostly South African, were center, lower middle income and working course, and subscribed to a variety of spiritual affiliations. They lived in historically designated black colored and colored townships and ghettoes situated in the Cape Flats, 3 and historically white designated southern or north suburbs of Cape Town. 4 Two focus teams with black colored African lesbians living in a selection of townships in Cape Town had been additionally carried out with individuals which range from 18 to 36 years.
The analysis entailed looking and interrogating lesbian participants’ counter narratives (Michael BAMBERG; Molly ANDREWS, 2004), the “stories which people tell and reside that provide resistance, either implicitly or clearly, to dominant cultural narratives” (Molly ANDREWS, 2004, p. 2). These counter narratives had been conceptualised as modes of queer world-making (QWM). A thought created by Berlant and Warner (1998), queer world-making is adopted and utilized here to mention towards the varying ways that the individuals into the research resist and (re)shape hegemonic identities, discourses and methods, revealing “a mode to be on earth that is additionally inventing the entire world” (Jose Esteban MUNOZ, 1999, p. 121). Hence, life globe is constructed alongside, in terms of, in certain cases complicit with, from time to time transgressive to a task of normalisation (Michel FOUCAULT, 1978).
I actually do maybe perhaps not, but, uncritically follow Berlant and Warner’s conceptualistion of QWM, which foregrounded challenges to heteronormativity and its particular task of normalisation. Instead, to be able to deal with the “blind spots” (MUNOZ, 1999, p. 10) created by their application that is sole of heterosexual/homosexual binary, we follow an intersectional (Kimberle CRENSHAW, 1991; Patricia HILL COLLINS; Sirma BILGE, 2016; Leslie MCCALL, 2005) reading of queer concept. This reworked concept of QWM fundamentally includes an analysis of this lesbian participants’ navigations of a “wide industry of normalisation” (WARNER, 1993, p. Xxvi). Particularly, this considers QWM when it comes to exactly exactly exactly how sex as well as its ‘normalisation’ task weaves along with other axes of huge difference, such as for instance sex, competition, course status, motherhood status and position that is generational the participants navigate social institutions within their everyday everyday lives.
I’ll first examine lesbians’ counter narratives to your principal notions of racialised areas of danger and safety. This is followed closely by a give attention to lesbians’ individual navigations of everyday area in Cape Town, analysing just exactly how they build their feeling of spot and house.